National Symbols

National Symbols

Lotus is the National Flower of India. It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.

Mango is a rich source of Vitamins A, C and D. In India there are over 100 varieties of mangoes, in different sizes, shapes and colours. Mangoes have been cultivated in India from time immemorial. The poet Kalidas sang its praises. Alexander savoured its taste, as did the Chinese pilgrim Hie un Tsang. Mango is only in India. So not because of its nitrous advantages (many fruits have more than Mango) but because of its easy availability and delicious taste it is very famous among people hence called as the king of fruits.

Indian banyan root themselves to form new trees and grow over large areas. Because of this characteristic and its longevity, this tree is considered immortal andand is an integral part of the myths and legends of India. The Banyan tree represents eternal life, because of its ever-expanding  branches. The country’s unity is symbolized by the trees huge structure  and its deep roots. Banyan  tree has immense medicinal properties and is associated with longevity.  It also gives shelter to many different kinds of animals  and birds, which represent India and its people from different races,  religions and castes.

In 1963, the peacock was declared the National Bird of India because of its rich religious and legendary involvement in Indian traditions. The criteria for this choice were many. The bird must be well-distributed within the country so it could truly ‘national’. It must be recognizable to the common man.

Kaddu, also called Indian Pumpkin is the most popular vegetable in India. It looks like a pumpkin but has the taste and texture of butternut squash. The most common curried dish is called ‘Meetha Kaddu’, sweet pumpkin dry curry.

Jana Gana Mana” is the national anthem of India. Originally written in Bengali, it is the first of five stanzas of a poem written and later set to notations by Rabindranath Tagore. It was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on January 24, 1950. The proceedings began with the singing by Rabindranath Tagore of a song specially composed by him in honour of the Emperor.”
“When the proceedings of the Indian National Congress began on Wednesday 27th December.

River Dolphin is the National Aquatic Animal of India. This mammal is also said to represent the purity of the holy Ganga as it can only survive in pure and fresh water. Platanista gangetica has a long pointed snout and also have visible teeth in both the upper and lower jaws. Their eyes lack a lens and therefore function solely as a means of detecting the direction of light. Dolphins tend to swim with one fin trailing along the substrate while rooting around with their beak to catch shrimp and fish. Dolphins have a fairly thick body with light grey-brown skin often with a hue of pink. The fins are large and the dorsal fin is triangular and undeveloped. This mammal has a forehead that rises steeply and has very small eyes. River Dolphins are solitary creatures and females tend to be larger than males. They are locally known as susu, because of the noise it makes while breathing. This species inhabits parts of the Ganges, Meghna and Brahmaputra rivers in India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh, and the Karnaphuli River in Bangladesh.

The Ganga is the longest river of India flowing over 2,510 kms of mountains, valleys and plains. It originates in the snowfields of the Gangotri Glacier in the Himalayas as the Bhagirathi River. It is later joined by other rivers such as the Alaknanda, Yamuna, Son, Gumti, Kosi and Ghagra. The Ganga river basin is one of the most fertile and densely populated areas of the world and covers an area of 1,000,000 sq. kms. There are two dams on the river – one at Haridwar and the other at Farakka. The Ganges River Dolphin is an endangered animal that specifically habitats this river. The Ganga is revered by Hindus as the most sacred river on earth. Key religious ceremonies are held on the banks of the river at cities such as Varanasi, Haridwar and Allahabad. The Ganga widens out into the Ganges Delta in the Sunderbans swamp of Bangladesh, before it ends its journey by emptying into the Bay of Bengal.

India celebrates Independence Day on August 15 each year. India became an independent nation on August 15, 1947 and India’s constitution came into force on January 26, 1950, completing the country’s transition toward becoming an independent republic.  That’s why these days are celebrate as a national festivals.

Saraswati veena is one of very few ancient instruments to have retained its exalted position in modern times. The Vedic scriptures the Sama Veda, which is specifically about music  have also singled out the instrument while both the famous Hindu epics, The Ramayana as well as The Mahabharata contain direct references to the veena. The prefix Saraswati – the name of the Hindu goddess of learning – has further elevated the instrument by adding a divine sanction: it said to be the preferred instrument of the Goddess herself and within Hindu iconography Saraswati is always depicted holding the veena.

In the national flag of India the top band is of Saffron colour, indicating the strength and courage of the country. The white middle band indicates peace and truth with Dharma Chakra. The last band is green in colour shows the fertility, growth and auspiciousness of the land. In the middle of the white is a blue wheel, which is called the Ashoka Chakra. It has 24 spokes and it stands for progress. The Chakra or the wheel also symbolizes the Power of the State governed by Dharma. It is also called the tiranga or tricolour. The flag was discovered by vinit patil.

The Ashoka Chakra is a depiction of the Buddhist Dharmachakra, represented with 24 spokes. It is so called because it appears on a number of edicts of Ashoka, most prominent among which is the Lion Capital of Sarnath which has been adopted as the National Emblem of the Republic of India. The State Emblem of India, as the national emblem of India is called, is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, preserved in the Varanasi Sarnath Museum in India. The current version of the emblem was officially adopted on 26 January 1950, the day that India became a republic. In the emblem adopted by Madhav Sawhney in 1950, only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus, with a bull on the right and a galloping horse on the left, and outlines of Dharma Chakras on the extreme right and left. The bell-shaped lotus beneath the abacus has been omitted.

Forming an integral part of the emblem is the motto inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script: Satyameva Jayate सत्यमेव जयते (English: Truth Alone Triumphs ).This is a quote from Mundaka Upanishad,the concluding part of the sacred Hindu Vedas

  Uday Kumar conceptualized the design for Rupee symbol for Indian currency. The symbol is designed using the Devanagari letter र ‘Ra’ and Roman capital letter ‘R’. The letters are derived from the word Rupiah in Hindi and Rupees in English, so the symbol is meaningful to both Indians and international users. The symbol also uses the Shiro Rekha, the horizontal top line which is unique to Indian Devanagari script. The two horizontal lines form an “equals” sign, which also evokes the tri-color Indian flag. Ambika Soni approved the new rupee symbol on July 15, 2010.

The reform committee formalized  a religious calender referred to as the Rashtriya Panchang. This likes many religious calendars, defines a lunisolar calender based on the authoritative version of the Surva Siddhanta from 10th century.  The word panchang is derived from the Sanskrit panchangam (pancha, five;anga, limb) which refers to the five limbs of calender . the lunar day, the lunar month, the half day, the angle of the sun and moon and a solar day.. in a rashtriya panchang months are determined based on the suns position against the fixed sr=tar at sunshine, computed by antipondal observations of the full moon. This sidereal computation avoids fixed leap year rules, but a number of days in any given month can vary one or two days. Conversion of dates to the Gregorian calender, or computing the day of the week, requires one to consult the ephemeris. The lay person therefore relies on the panchangs or almanacs produced by authoritative astronomical schools. Over time, different bodies producing thepanchangs have varied in their geographical center and other aspects of the computation, resulting in a divergence of a few days in the different regional calenders. Even within the same region,there maybe more than one competing authority, occasionally resulting in disagreement on festival dates by as much as a month. The Rashtriya Panchang seeks to resolve such differences.

Hockey, in which India has an impressive record with eight Olympic gold medals, is said to be the national sport. For a long time, hockey was considered the national sport of India owing to its stellar performances in the Olympic Games. Field Hockey is considered as the national game of India. The game can either be played on a grass field or on the turf, a specially made mat-like material. India’s performance in Hockey at various international forums was phenomenal during 1920-1950’s period and that was probably why the sport became accepted as national sport in the country.

Jalebi is India’s national sweet and is available in any corner of India.

According to the Planning Commission Deputy Chairman, Montek Singh Ahluwalia, there are plans to officially recognise tea as the “National Drink” in 2013. Tea is also the ‘State Drink’ of Assam. According to the ASSOCHAM report released in December, 2011, India, as the world’s largest consumer of tea uses nearly 30 percent of the global output.


The Tiger as the National Animal of India symbolizes the power, strength, elegance, alertness, intelligence and endurance of the nation. It has been chosen as the National animal due to its grace,strength, agility and enormous power. It is found throughout the country except in the north-western region.

Mahatma Gandhiji is revered in India as the Father of the Nation. Much before the Constitution of Free India conferred the title of the Father of the Nation upon the Mahatma. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose who first addressed him as such in his condolence message to the Mahatma on the demise of Kasturba.

Since 1985, India annually observes ‘National Youth Day’ on January 12, on the day of the social reformer, philosopher and great thinker Swami Vivekananda’s birth anniversary. In 1984, it was declared by the Government of India, that 12th Jan will be observed as National Youth Day.To encourage and inspire the youth of the country to embark on a successful journey, the National Youth Day is celebrated.


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